Plastic Materials

Plastics have brought a wide range of transformations in the lives of human beings, especially with reference to increase in income and creation of jobs (Frazier 2016). However, such materials also have a vast array of negative impacts on the lives of people who benefit from them (Mangu-Ward 2015). Some of the leading direct impacts include the death of animals, human diseases, the blockage of sewage systems, and destruction of natural environments. The primary aim of this study was to determine the gravity of the above-mentioned impacts on the lives of human beings. The scope of study was limited to an experimental study earlier conducted by Adane and Muleta (2011) in Jimma City, Ethiopia. For the comprehensive analysis, the research employed such statistical tools as t-test-two-sample assuming unequal variances and regression techniques. The primary focus was on clarification whether or not significant relationships exist between the distinct variable samples being tested on the impacts of plastic bags on human life.

Plastic materials have a vast array of applications in the contemporary society (Loepp 2015). However, these polymeric substances are also likely to pose a number of health risks to human beings, animals, as well as the other constituents of the environment. Regardless of the consistent research carried out in the manufacturing realm, scientific harmony on the safety of plastics is still indescribable (Menger 2015). As a result, conducting an experimental research on this topical subject is more than relevant. The primary aim of this paper is the focus on the synthesis of understanding the common impacts of the use of plastic bags on human life. To be more precise, a particular basis is on an experimental study carried out in Jimma City, Ethiopia, among 230 participants to determine the supposed effects. Several statistical tools are utilized to explore the results of the study, such as regression analysis and t-test.

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Experimental Design

The experimental research was carried out in Jimma City, Ethiopia. The research sample comprised of a total of 230 participants randomly collected across the city. 167 of the respondents were males, while 63 were females (Adane and Muleta 2011). Based on the research procedure, the random selection was performed within households within the same geographic area, and at least one member was randomly picked from each of the households irrespective of their sex, age, occupation and educational statuses (Adane and Muleta 2011).
To collect the data, the researcher applied semi-structured questionnaires. However, prior to questionnaire administration, the researcher made the respondents aware of the objective of the research for ensuring their willing participation in line with ethicality of the research process. In particular, the questionnaires sought to determine the various impacts of plastic bags on human health (Adane and Muleta 2011). The most frequently mentioned impacts were the effects on the lives of the animals, thus, directly affecting the lives of the human beings, the direct health effects on the lives of human beings (diseases), blockage of sewage systems, and destruction of natural environments (Adane and Muleta 2011). All these factors have significant influences on the health of humans (Hardesty et al. 2015). Further, the obtained data were used to group the respondents into various categories, and the researcher carried out an all-inclusive analysis as discussed later in this report.

Qualitative and Quantitative Data

The summary of results regarding specific problems linked to plastic bag wastes (adopted from Adane and Muleta 2011)

Critical Evaluation/Statistical Analyses

Using T-Test: Application of two-sample assuming unequal variances to determine the relationship between the proportions of males and females (of the totals) making various responses on the impacts of plastic bags on human health and the environment at large.

Statement of Hypotheses

Null hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between the male and female participant responses on the impacts of plastic bags on human health.

Alternative hypothesis: There exists a significant relationship between the male and female participant responses on the impacts of plastic bags on human health.

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Interpretation of the T-Test Results

From the results shown above, one can be observe that the means of both male and female proportion responses are nearly equal, namely, 0.63 and 0.64 respectively. In addition, both p values [P (T<=t) one-tail and P (T<=t) two-tail] are more than 0.05. In particular, P (T<=t) one-tail = 0.463861876 and P (T<=t) two-tail = 0.927723751. As a result, the findings allow drawing a conclusion that a strong correlation existed between the opinions of both male and female respondents with regard to the impacts of plastic bags on the lives of the animals. Further, an assumption can be made concerning direct affecting the lives of human beings, including health effects in a form of diseases, blockage of sewage systems, and destruction of natural environments. Thus, the results contradict the null hypothesis (Carlberg 2014).
Using regression analysis to determine the relationship between the respondents having the various educational statuses

Statement of Hypotheses

Null hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between the responses with the various educational statuses (illiterate, primary education, high school education and higher education) on the impacts of plastic bags on human health.

Alternative hypothesis: There exists a significant relationship between the responses from the various educational statuses on the impacts of plastic bags on human health.

Interpretation of the Regression Results

Drawing upon the results, the multiple R values are 0.686, 0.715, and 0.735. The closer a multiple R value is to 1, the stronger the relationship is between various variables (Carlberg 2014).Thus, one can conclude that all the respondents from the 4 educational status groups had the same opinion about the impacts of plastic bags on human life. In addition, both the p values [P (T<=t) one-tail and P (T<=t) two-tail] are more than 0.05. This aspect also supports the assertion of a strong correlation between the opinions of respondents from all the 4 groups on the impacts of plastic bags on effects on the lives of the animals, thus, directly affecting the lives of the human beings, direct health effects on the lives of human beings (diseases), blockage of sewage systems, and destruction of natural environments. Hence, the findings disapprove the null hypothesis.

Conclusion

From the regression analysis and t-test results, the researcher can deduce that the existence of significant relationships between the different variable samples being tested on the impacts of plastic bags on the lives of the animals, thus, directly affecting the lives of the human beings, the direct health effects on the lives of human beings (diseases), the blockage of sewage systems and the destruction of natural environments, thus, disapproving the various null hypotheses. These conclusions were particularly based on the multiple R and P values for the regression analysis and the mean and P values for the t-test: two-sample assuming unequal variances analysis.

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