Analysis of The Impacts of Economic Development in Bangkok city On The Water Quality: A Case Study of Chao Phraya River Basin
The research problem of the following report is the effects of the economic development of Bangkok on the Chao Phraya River basin. In the course of work, it was established that the growth of the city was relatively uncontrolled, especially during its initial stages of development, which has impacted its environment. In fact, despite its size and dependence on water, Bangkok does not have a universal sewage system, being reliant on canals and septic tanks instead. Moreover, this growing metropolis became an economic and cultural center of Thailand, attracting the workforce, entrepreneurs, and tourists. In turn, the share of wastewaters produced by the households and industrial sector increased significantly, having a direct effect on the Chao Phraya River. As a result, its water started deteriorating, demonstrating the highest degree of pollution near the estuary (the location of Bangkok), where it is suitable only for the industrial purposes and cannot be consumed without intensive treatment and disinfection. The lack of clean water has caused the emergence of a wide array of problems, especially during the dry seasons, having a devastating impact on the country’s agriculture and the economy as a whole.
As a result, it is possible to state that the factors that accompany the economic development of Bangkok, for example the inflow of population and growing industrial profile of the city, have a negative effect on the quality of water in the Chao Phraya River basin, especially its lower part. Therefore, the following paper analyzes the field of environmental protection by stressing the connection between the negative effects of human activity and the well-being and stability of a particular country, contributing to the relevance of the problem of environmental protection under the contemporary conditions.
The author wishes to thank all the scholars that put their efforts into the problem of water management and pollution in Southeast Asia as their work has made it possible to establish a connection between the economic development of Bangkok and deterioration of the Chao Phraya River basin. Additionally, the author wants to express gratitude towards the reporters that highlighted the economic, social, and political situation in Thailand during the drought of 2015. Their contribution emphasized the relevance of the studied problem, allowing stressing the importance of environmental protection under the conditions of growth of the country, as a significant player in the global market.
Water Pollution in Bangkok
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Chapter 1: Introduction
The problem of water pollution, which occurs as a result of penetration of contaminants in the absence of measures focused on the disposal of hazardous substances, is the primary area of research of the following study. The presented issue was covered by numerous scholarly works, meaning that the amount of relevant findings on the topic is quite significant. In fact, it is indicated that the water management is relatively poor in many countries, which contributes to further deterioration of rivers and lakes. Additionally, one can mention the lax control over the population and industrial sector, leading to the constant violation of laws and rules relating to the protection of water sources. Finally, it is worth noting that at the initial stage of their development, many modern cities tend to experience the lack of control on the part of the authorities, which often causes a considerable negative impact on the environment.
The following work focuses on the analysis of an impact of the economic development of Bangkok City on the quality of water of the Chao Phraya River. The relevance of the selected topic is in the fact that fresh, high-quality water comprises only a small part of all water resources of the Earth. Moreover, it is subject to intensive depletion due to its practical importance. Water is needed in the industry and it serves as a source of electricity so that in some factories, it is necessary to use hundreds of tons of water in order to release one ton of the finished product. It is also indispensable in agriculture as well as in meeting the household needs of the population. Currently, water resources of the Earth have become subject to growing consumption, which means that the countries with developed economies such as Thailand are at risk of experiencing their shortage. The causes of such depletion originate not only in the uneven distribution of resources on the Earth’s surface but the fact that water often becomes contaminated after its use. In turn, it is becoming one of the scarcest resources. Evidently, all these facts contribute to the relevance of the study.
The primary objective of the thesis is to establish a connection between the factors of the development of the metropolitan areas such as Bangkok and the quality of water in the neighboring areas. As a result, it is possible to expect the expansion of knowledge of social, political, and economic facilitators that may have an impact on the freshwater sources.
The report primarily focuses on the students whose major is environmental studies. They are expected to know about the harmful effects of industrialization on rivers and other natural sources of water, but the following research will allow expanding this knowledge. Additionally, it targets people interested in the issues related to the studied topic and those willing to learn about the connection between the economic development and degradation of the environment.
The primary reason for the selection of the topic dedicated to the problem of water pollution was its relevance under the contemporary conditions. Currently, the majority of countries of the world are experiencing the effects of globalization. Thereafter, the developing international relations contribute to the economic growth of many states through tourism, the expansion of multinational corporations, and others. However, this process is often conducted without taking into account the impact it may have on the environment. Thus, the illustration of the connection between the economic development of a particular city and the quality of water in the neighboring regions may help to identify the negative consequences of economic development, thereby stressing the significance of environmental protection.
Research Method in Brief
The following work utilizes literature review as the core research method, focusing on the study of published works on the selected topic. As a result, it will determine the current frontiers of knowledge in the chosen area of environmental protection. It will also provide the data obtained in the course of various studies as well as analyze and summarize them to make it easier to comprehend the effects of the economic development of Bangkok on the quality of water in the neighboring regions.
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Structure of the Report
The following report comprises six chapters, including the introduction and conclusion.
- Chapter 1 briefly describes the focus and contents of the work. It also provides a rationale for the selection of an object of research and describes the target group and personal motivation of the author.
- Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of the problems presented by the work as well as the theoretical focus of the research. Moreover, it supports each of the reviewed issues with the relevant scholarly work or study.
- Chapter 3 focuses on the presentation of the object of study, namely the Chao Phraya River basin. It provides an insight into the economic, social, and demographic features of the region and describes the factors that may potentially precipitate changes that can affect the environment.
- Chapter 4 is dedicated to the description of the research methods that could have been used in the course of work. It emphasizes their pros and cons and provides the justification for the selection of a particular method.
- Chapter 5 is a presentation and analysis of the obtained information. It provides an insight into the history of Bangkok’s economic development, describing the process of transformation of a city into the economic center of
Thailand. It also examines the factors that affect the quality of water in the Chao Phraya River basin and identifies the problems related to its management. Finally, it illustrates the consequences of water pollution for the studied region and the country as a whole.
The conclusion summarizes all findings presented in the previous chapters. This section also establishes a connection between the economic development of Bangkok and the quality of water in the Chao Phraya River basin.
Chapter 2: Related Literature and Theoretical Focus
As it was mentioned before, the issue of water pollution, namely the one caused by the economic activity, has been covered by many scholars. The theoretical focus of the report is presented in the form of several problems, with each of them being reviewed by a series of scholarly works. The first of them is the creation of the economic and social portrait of the studied area, which is the Chao Phraya River basin, for the purpose of presentation. Therefore, such authors as Nee and Rumney provide general information on the object of the research, including economic conditions, density of the population, the use of the land, and others. Fry et al. focus on the historical perspective, namely the conversion of lands near Bangkok, while Tsuzuki and Koottatep review the issue of water management. The research methods reviewed in the report are described in the works by McBurney and White and Hammond and Wellington. On the other hand, Fowler Jr. primarily focuses on the survey as a way of obtaining the necessary data.
The next problem is the process of development of Bangkok, with such authors as Fry et al., O’Neil, and Baker and Phongpaichit focusing on the history of the city by covering the period from the end of the 19th century to the modern days. On the other hand, Tsuzuki and Koottatep focus on the industrial profile of the metropolitan area.
The key issue of the report is related to the water quality. In this regard, such authors as Subramanian and Park dedicate their works to the very process of contamination of the Chao Phraya River basin. Yamamoto et al. (2014), Tsuzuki (2014), Tortajada (2013) and many others identify the sources of pollution and provide an insight into the principles of waste and water management in Southeast Asia. Finally, Amiard-Triquet, Amiard and Rainbow analyze the situation from the biological point of view.
The consequences of the lowered quality of water in the Chao Phraya River basin are presented in the articles from periodicals. For instance, Tang and Ugrin describe the overall situation, focusing on the response by the government. Huei and Regan note the negative effect of water shortage experienced by the farmers, while Suwannakij emphasizes the involvement of the armed forces in the resolution of the problem. Finally, Languepin and Page focus on the economic effect of the pollution, stressing the slowdown in the economic growth of the country as a whole.
Chapter 3: Presentation of the Object of the Study
As it was mentioned before, the research focuses on the ecological situation in the Chao Phraya River basin. In order to understand the implications and consequences of the economic development of such city as Bangkok for the region, it is necessary to possess comprehensive information about its features, including demographics, economy, and others. First of all, it is possible to state that the studied basin is among the most important in Thailand. It covers one-third of the country’s area, being home to around 40% of its citizens (around 23 million). In turn, it has become one of the largest economic regions of Thailand, employing over 70% of its total workforce and generating over 60% of its gross domestic product (Nee, 2014). As a result, its significance cannot be overestimated.
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Moreover, the Chao Phraya River system allows dividing the studied area into several regions (sub-basins). The lower one, which is the primary focus of the study, houses half of the mentioned population due to the fact that it is the location of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) (Nee, 2014). At the same time, the upper basin is also heavily populated, including such large cities as Chiang Mai. Still, the urbanization of the area is relatively low, with around 68% of the population being rural. However, this figure is not consistent, with over half of people living in the lower basin residing in cities and towns, while 90% of those from the upper basin being villagers. The density of the population is also inconsistent, reaching its maximum of around 1,500 inhabitants per square kilometer in the BMR (Nee, 2014).
The same can be said about the economic growth rates, meaning that the river basin can also be divided by prosperity, with its northern and southern parts being richer than the middle one. In turn, such division has a considerable effect on socio-economic conditions in the region. Thereafter, employment and social services are concentrated in the BMR. Moreover, industrialized regions located in the Chao Phraya River basin have higher economic growth rates than agricultural ones. In turn, the per capita income of the urban population of the region is higher than that of people living in villages (Nee, 2014). Despite the fact that Thailand is relatively advanced when talking about the economy, such inequality remains its primary problem. For example, the citizens of Bangkok earn six times more than those from rural areas of the country. Naturally, such state of events contributes to migration of the workforce to the cities. Still, despite the described inequalities, around 45% of the Chao Phraya River basin is occupied by fields that are primarily concentrated in its southern part. On the other hand, the north is mostly covered with forests (Rumney, 2010). However, it is worth noting that in recent years, people tend to settle in this area to convert it into the lands being suitable for agricultural purposes. On the contrary, the fields located near urban centers are converted into areas with buildings (Fry, Nieminen & Smith, 2013).
Despite the presence of Chao Phraya River in the region, the availability of water is one of the key factors that have a considerable effect on the development of the area. Water resources are often scarce and their management becomes one of the most pressing problems to address. In this regard, it is possible to emphasize the following aspects of the region. The first of them is the quantity of water, which defines the success not only of the agricultural sector but also the industrial one (Park, 2010). In fact, only in the BMR, more than half of all manufacturing enterprises and businesses are water-dependent (Tsuzuki & Koottatep, 2010). The next important aspect is the quality of water as well as its sustainability. The high levels of pollution will render it unusable for the majority of purposes, including the household and agricultural ones. By taking into account that such elements of the local agriculture as fresh water fisheries and livestock serve as a considerable source of income for the residents of Chao Phraya River basin, one can assume that further water deterioration will completely destroy this segment (Nee, 2014). Thus, it is possible to state that the overall socio-economic and ecological portrait of the studied area comprises a wide array of water-related factors, which signify the importance of Chao Phraya River for the development of the BMR and the neighboring regions.
Chapter 4: Research Method
The problem of choice of the research method was addressed at the initial stage of work. The selection was quite wide, including surveys, observations, case studies, and literature reviews. Evidently, each of those had advantages and disadvantages that were taken into account. Thus, the first reviewed method, which is survey, focuses on the use of questionnaires. Its value is undeniable in case it is required to obtain factual data, for example, the one related to the information on the quality of water in the BMR (Fowler Jr., 2014). Moreover, its anonymous nature provides relative freedom with regard to the investigation of sensitive subjects. Finally, it can be used to retrieve the information from many people at once, which can be categorized and analyzed with ease. At the same time, the issue related to the connection between the economic development of Bangkok and the quality of water in the neighboring regions is quite complex, meaning that under such conditions, the usefulness of surveys is limited (Fowler Jr., 2014).
The next method that is observation focuses on recording the changes in the state of the object of a study in the real time. On the one hand, such approach provides highly objective information (Hammond & Wellington, 2013). However, on the other hand, it is not suitable for the majority of environmental studies. The primary reason for that is the fact that the deterioration of environment (for example, negative effects of water pollution) is a process that is to be studied in the long-term perspective.
The case study is another method that is used to gain knowledge on the subjects of a pluralistic nature (for instance, the benefits of economic growth and consequences of water contamination). In other words, there is no single answer to the question, and there are several options that can compete on the basis of a degree of truth. In turn, it presents an opportunity for the application of not only one’s knowledge but also the professional skills to the selected issue (McBurney & White, 2010). However, the number of actual case studies on the problem of water quality in Chao Phraya River basin is relatively scarce, which leads to the limited usefulness of such approach.
As a result, the choice was made in favor of literature review. This method focuses on the search and synthesis of the research conducted by other people. Therefore, it is quite valuable when studying topics that were researched before. Moreover, it allows revealing the gaps in the research literature and contextualizing the work in line with scholarly best practice. Undoubtedly, such approach is not helpful in case there is no research on the selected topic (McBurney & White, 2010). However, given the fact that the issue of deteriorating quality of fresh water has become particularly pressing nowadays, the studies dedicated to it are numerous, being conducted by authors that focus on its different aspects. As a result, one can synthesize their findings to establish a connection between the state of water in the Chao Phraya River basin and the economic development of Bangkok.
Chapter 5: Research Results and Discussion
The Development of Bangkok
Until the end of the 19th century, Bangkok was developing within the boundaries of a single island named Rattanakosin. However, during the late 19th and 20th centuries, the city started experiencing a new stage of its development. In fact, the reign of King Chulalongkorn was accompanied by reforms, which laid the foundation for its industrialization and growth in the future (O’Neil, 2008). Moreover, the Ministry of Urban Affairs assumed control over the governance of the capital and the neighboring areas, which caused the emergence of the modern infrastructure of the city. The number of roads and canals increased significantly to expand the urban reaches of Bangkok. Railway and telegraph services have also appeared in the city, being eventually expanded over the territory of the Chao Phraya River basin. At the same time, the development of the city went unchecked in many areas, and some planning deficiencies still affect Bangkok, especially when talking about the wide network of canals that often remain unattended due to the emergence of more efficient means of transportation (Baker & Phongpaichit, 2009).
During the dramatic events of the Second World War, the city was partly occupied by Japanese forces and endured a period of decline. However, after its end, Bangkok experienced rapid growth, with its paddy fields being replaced by buildings and freeways. As a result, the city has become more industrialized and urbanized (Baker & Phongpaichit, 2009). A new twist in the history of Bangkok occurred during the Vietnam War. The Government of Thailand has allowed Americans to host military bases there, with the city becoming a rest area for the United States Army soldiers. During this time, the first late-night bars and massage parlors have appeared in the region, and the capital of Thailand had its first airport (Baker & Phongpaichit, 2009). In general, Bangkok made a giant leap from a city with an area of 13 square kilometers to one of the largest metropolises of the planet, which became the cultural and economic center of the country (Fry, Nieminen & Smith, 2013).
In turn, industrialization has become the major factor for the development of Bangkok, totaling at least 75% of the manufacturing value of the city (Tsuzuki & Koottatep, 2010). In fact, more than 25,000 of industries of Thailand are located in the BMR. In this regard, it is possible to mention the manufacturing industry, which has developed at a rapid pace during the 1990s and became the most important sector of the economy. Nowadays, the city exports grocery, lumber and textiles and houses numerous cement factories, sawmills, oil refineries, and shipyards (Tsuzuki & Koottatep, 2010).
Moreover, the geographic location of the BMR as well as its former status of the rest area has contributed to the development of tourism. As it was mentioned before, the Chao Phraya River basin houses the majority of the population as well as major enterprises, highways, and historical and cultural sites. The center of the region is the city of Bangkok, the location of the Palace of the King, as well as numerous monasteries such as Wat Pho (the Temple of the Sleeping Buddha) and Wat Phra Kaew (the Temple of the Emerald Buddha) that is considered the most sacred place in Thailand (O’Neil, 2008). In turn, it attracts many tourists, with its infrastructure being designed to accommodate a large number of people of different interests and financial status. As a result, Bangkok has obtained the title of the capital of tourism in South-East Asia, becoming one of the most attractive travel destinations in the world.
Therefore, nowadays, the BMR has become a major economic and cultural center of Asia. However, such development was accompanied by considerable changes in the environment of the region. In this regard, the core water artery of the area, namely Chao Phraya River, has been subject to pollution. The comprehensive analysis of its current state as well as the discussion of the consequences of its deterioration for the city will be conducted further.
The Sources of Pollution and Water Quality
Given the high level of development of Bangkok as well as high density of the population, it is possible to identify the major sources of pollution of the Chao Phraya River. These can be divided into several groups, including waste from domestic and commercial activities and the one from industries (Yodsurang, Hiromi, & Yasufumi, 2015). The first group is the most significant one, with waste being produced by households and businesses, namely the ones engaged in tourism, numbering around 75% of the total discharges into the Chao Phraya River. Thereafter, only the canals of the city, which often serve as a means of disposal from the domestic wastewater, produce 130 tons of it every day (Subramanian, 2015). In turn, one can observe a considerable decrease in dissolved oxygen in the river. In fact, many of the canals located in the area become anaerobic. The situation becomes especially dire during the dry seasons, with the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the parts of Chao Phraya River close to Bangkok dropping to less than 0.5 milligrams per liter (Subramanian, 2015). As a result, its deterioration is obvious.
The problem is exacerbated by the fact that in the BMR, there is no universal sewage system. The domestic waste described above is produced by a wide array of objects, including numerous private houses, hotels, and commercial buildings. The majority of buildings in the city are connected to specialized septic tanks. However, those are intended for the retrieval and subsequent purification of toilet waste, which are also discharged into cesspools (Tsuzuki, 2014). On the other hand, wastewaters generated by kitchens and laundries are subject to separate collection, being discharged without any treatment into the drainage canals and drains for the storm water. It should be noted that septic tanks mentioned above are constructed in a way that allows the liquid part of the waste to seep into the ground. The leftover sludge gradually accumulates and is collected and discarded at special dumping sites (Tsuzuki, 2014). However, the BMR is characterized by relatively thick clay layers in the soil as well as the high water table. As a result, the process of natural infiltration becomes obstructed, with effluents often penetrating into the canals of the city to be spread all over the river basin (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Additionally, the drains in some parts of Bangkok often become obstructed with solid waste, which has a negative effect on their functionality and leads to the flooding of the streets. Finally, there are cases of home owners illegally connecting septic tanks to such drains, with untreated toilet waste penetrating into Chao Phraya River (Yamamoto et al., 2014). As a result, it is possible to state that water management is underdeveloped in the BMR (Islam & Babel, 2013).
The amount of waste generated by the industrial sources is also significant. In fact, the larger plants of Bangkok produce over 145 tons of discharge per day. It is worth noting that waste treatment can significantly reduce this figure (up to 8 tons per day). However, only 60% of the enterprises engaged in manufacturing industry comply with the environmental standards despite the fact that all of them are equipped with the corresponding facilities (Subramanian, 2015). Moreover, solid waste also contributes to the problem of river pollution. In the BMR, about 70% of such waste is subject to landfilling, recycling, and incineration. However, the rest of waste is often dumped into the canals of the city, meaning that it eventually spreads over the Chao Phraya River, causing its further deterioration (Subramanian, 2015).
The described numerous sources of pollution do not contribute to the high quality of water in the Chao Phraya River basin, and the situation remains unchanged despite the fact that the studied region is dependent on it in order to properly function. Still, people residing in the BMR witness it being polluted by runoff, sewage, contents of septic tanks, and others. As a result, currently, more than 90% of the total area of the basin is at risk. The untreated wastewater from households and plants remains the core factor that defines the quality of water in the region (Tortajada, 2013). Thus, given the current state of affairs with water management in the BMR, one can assume that the contamination levels near Bangkok will be quite high due to it being a center of concentration of both people and industries (Juma, Wang, & Li, 2014).
The statement presented above is supported by the results of the analysis. In fact, the use of sampling stations located along the body (from the estuary to upstream) of Chao Phraya River allowed assessing the degree of its pollution, making it possible to divide the water artery into three areas. The first of them, being the closest to the ocean and covering the BMR, has been identified as the source of Class 4. In other words, it is primarily suitable for the industrial purposes, being too polluted to serve as a water supply without disinfection and intensive treatment (Park, 2010). The middle area located between Bangkok and the upstream is a source of Class 3. Therefore, it can be used by farms and households after moderate disinfection and treatment. At the same time, this section is actively used as a water supply by the BMR, which means that the risk of it running dry is quite significant. Finally, the part closest to the upstream is the source of Class 2, meaning that it is suitable for a wide array of purposes, including recreation and fishing (Subramanian, 2015). As a result, it is possible to observe gradual deterioration of the quality of water as the distance to Bangkok shortens, with the lower part of the basin being the most polluted one. The problem of low quality of water is exacerbated by the fact that it becomes subject to fecal contamination in the BMR, while also containing pesticides and heavy metals. Still, the concentration of the latter does not exceed the standards established by the government. On the other hand, the presence of coliform bacteria presents considerable risks to the residents of the area as well as the tourists (Amiard-Triquet, Amiard & Rainbow, 2013).
Consequences for the Region
Low quality of water has a direct effect on the development of the studied region as a whole. On the one hand, it may affect the productivity of more than 20,000 of water-dependent industries of the city, having a negative effect on its development. Moreover, it also leads to the low availability of fresh water that is suitable for drinking and agricultural purposes, especially during the dry season, leading to the emergence of a wide array of problems of social, economic, and even political nature. In this regard, it is possible to provide the events that took place in Bangkok in 2015 as an example. During that time, the region has experienced the effects of seasonal drought, which was recognized as a national crisis, with the authorities being ready to impose the austerity of fresh water. In fact, the government recognized the presence of water shortages, stressing the need for the introduction of limitations on the amount of water used for the secondary purposes (Tang, 2015). For example, these may include the irrigation of golf courses and city streets, watering of the plants, filling of individual swimming pools, and washing of cars.
The problem was exacerbated by the fact that abnormal heat, which prolonged the dry season for two months, caused the most significant drought in the past ten years in the central parts of Thailand and the Chao Phraya River basin (Tang, 2015). As a result, there was an acute lack of water from the Class 2 and 3 sources, which was required to irrigate the farm fields in the regions that usually produce the largest harvest. Moreover, once the suburbs of Bangkok started facing similar troubles, the government has completely banned the diversion of water from the Chao Phraya River basin for agricultural purposes. As a result, thousands of farms were on the verge of ruin (Regan, 2015). Additionally, in some areas of the region, the access to fresh water was limited to several hours a day. To address the problem, the government was forced to freeze the prices of bottled water, which was safe for drinking and household use, and dispatched water supply vehicles to the affected areas (Ugrin, 2015). Thus, it is possible to state that low quality of water in the lower part of the Chao Phraya River basin contributed to the development of a crisis on the national scale.
Later, the governmental agencies have introduced standards for the use of freshwater in the agricultural sector in order to secure the town of the central part of the country from a shortage of tap water. The water for farms was supplied in accordance with the newly established norms, with this process being supervised by the armed forces in all regions of the country, especially in its central provinces (Suwannakij, 2015). In return, the farmers expected cash compensation from the government (Huei, 2015). Still, even despite these measures, the lack of tap water was experienced in the provinces located to the north-east and north-west of Bangkok. The shortage has also affected the second usually the most abundant rice harvest in the Chao Phraya River basin. Given the fact that Thailand is among the largest manufacturers and exporters of rice in the world, the absence or drastic reduction in its supply will immediately affect the country’s economy (Page, 2015). In fact, the Thai Central Bank has announced the reduction of expectations in terms of economic growth in Thailand in 2015 to 3.1% due to the effects of drought, which were complemented by poor quality of water in the region (Languepin, 2016). Thus, it is possible to state that the deterioration of the Chao Phraya River basin as a result of the development of Bangkok has affected the country as a whole.
Over the last century, Bangkok has transformed into a considerable economic and cultural center of Southeast Asia. This process was accompanied by the expansion of the city as well as considerable changes in its infrastructure. The transformation has also affected the nearby lands, with them being subject to urbanization and industrialization. In turn, the density of the population, the attractiveness of the region, and its industrial potential has grown. However, such growth had a direct effect on the environment, namely the Chao Phraya River basin. Thus, the share of domestic and industrial wastewater discharged into the river has considerably increased. Moreover, the poor water management has contributed to its further deterioration.
As a result, the quality of water in the area has been lowered significantly, with it being unsuitable for the household and agricultural purposes without treatment and disinfection. The situation is especially dire near Bangkok, where it meets only industrial standards. In turn, the city has to be reliant on the upper part of the Chao Phraya River when talking about freshwater, which considering the high share of water-dependent industries, may cause the shortage of this resource. The events of the year 2015 support this statement, with the government being forced to limit the consumption of water by the farms, which has compromised the economic growth of the country as a whole.
Therefore, the connection between the development of Bangkok and the quality of water in the nearby regions is obvious. The latter is defined by a wide array of factors, including the industrial profile, the density of the population, the distribution of income, and others. Therefore, all of those are to be taken into account when planning the expansion and urbanization of any city to prevent the situations similar to the one that took place in 2015. The example of Bangkok has clearly demonstrated not only social and economic but also political significance of clean water, which means that the price for the rapid development of a metropolitan area may come in the form of low financial and political stability in the region caused by the deterioration of the environment.
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