The aim of the research is to find a square land each side 100 meter for a project to take place in Devikulam Village. The land I found is next to a primary school. The location establishes the underlying property value of this land. Research in this area has mainly focussed on different levels of trust; and the techniques used to gain trust from landlord and third party seals (e.g. TRUSTe). However, current research lacks focus on the international context, which is characterised by strong and weak land laws, supporting telecommunication infrastructure and the credibility of payment channels. To continue research in Devikulam Village, this study will follow a qualitative methodology of 2-3 case studies of the importance of this land. 1-2 managers in these firms will be interviewed as to how local and regional laws concerning land use is of importance to soil fertility. The interview data will be complemented by using observation and document analysis in order to reduce bias of one method. Data will be qualitatively analysed using maps, and the results will be compared with other areas of studies. The project research will further find out the technologies concerning agricultural firms. In addition to the above, the research will depict the impacts of construction of a fish pond project in the area of location.
Along the way of my research, the landlord declared their village as residing under the newly established Federal Reserve Forest area, thus making villagers technical trespassers. The fact that the land was fertile and conducive in terms of agriculture did generate conflict between the villagers and the landlord because the project had to cover a 100 meters each side. Over 100 individuals from Devikulam Village have been charged and put through the judicial system for using the fertile land their families have been working on for over 20 years. When people are prevented from farming, their main source of income, and are ordered to pay fines equal to $3,000 per ½ acre worked on, there is more to the conflict than legal issues, it becomes issues of humanity. “Most of the villagers I encountered have no other source of income besides farming on their land and without the ability to do so they’d need to pick up their families and move to an urban area and start from scratch.” (Standifird, 2001)
The green circled land is surrounded by well tarmacked road and a few shops. Devikulam land is one kilometre from the school. The students have to take a van for their practical studies to Devikulam.
Agricultural nature of the land depicts the reason why Devikulam Village land is more preferable than other lands. Agriculture has really played a fundamental role in the economy of various nations. According to Standifird, (2001) “Not only for the reason that it tends to feed the entire population of a country but also in the respect that agriculture correlates and interacts with all the related industries of that country.” Any country is usually preferred to be a politically and social stable nation if it possesses a very stable agricultural basis. “A stable agricultural industry ensures a country of food security. The land has been noted as a food security zone that other lands have not qualified for. Food security is considered to be one of the primary requirements of any nation and no nation can effectively grow with a stable agricultural base while harboring a nation of “hungry people”, as these hungry people can do nothing what-so-ever towards helping develop their country.” Food security prevents starvation which has traditionally been considered one of the largest problems being experienced by the small developing nations. Most countries depend upon agricultural products and related industries for their major source of income.
The major limitation of this thesis is the fact that the landlord does not have access to government documents of the land under analysis in this research project, especially as concerns strategic matters. Conversely, the entire research project will be based on written materials, the analysis of the assessments of the insights made by various analysts and the statements issued by the concerned people. Another limitation is that the dynamics of the contemporarily operational environment may affect the subject matter of discussion quite immensely. This is because of the existence of a number of other states and non-states and actors that may impinge on the relations and associations among the villagers. The scope of this synopsis may be further affected by the daily happenings, given the dynamics of the politics in the area, which may affect the subject matters of analysis. Before the location of the project, I had to consider several questions such as;
I had to consider some examples of development that occurs in the absence of the necessary land-use policies to guide the implementation process or decision-making. These examples also highlight some of the problems that may occur if land-use planning issues and criteria are not adequately considered during and incorporated into the process of evaluating development applications.
This coupled with the paucity of the time dedicated for project location may impinge on the depth and scope of the synopsis. Homes located in Devikulam communities that support employment in large industries such as aerospace, technology, manufacturing and the government-military-industrial complex are likely to experience relatively stable or rising market value. I preferred Devikulam Village land thanTamil Nadu due to various environmental factors such; rainfall, soil fertility and good infrastructure such as road accessibility, electricity and network.
In the absence of a policy to guide the display of advertising and directional signs in Devikulam Village, the development control system has no criteria by which to judge whether or not a sign is too large, too close to the road, within motorists’ line of sight or is aesthetically or visually pleasing. (Standifird, 2001)
While the scope of this synopsis encompasses the agricultural, diplomatic and economic interests of the villagers, the historical backgrounds and foundations on the basis of which these current geo-strategic are founded cannot be discounted. However, it is only the major implications of the historical perspectives that have been paid cognizance. The synopsis therefore is grounded on the framework that the landlord will continue to pursue his interest and conversely will pursue policies that will enhance its strategic regional goals.
I now come to realization that Devikulam land is more than a parcel or area of soil; I see it as a gateway to other freedoms and rights that has contributed to the increasing and protecting someone’s quality of life. As matters surrounding land here in Devikulam are becoming clear to me, I am left wondering about what other issues I have overlooked due to my American understanding of a concept. “Although this is a big question, I know that the only way to understand more is to open myself up to the challenges of this project and to not only evaluate what is going on in Devikulam, but what is going on in my backyard as well.” (Kimmel, 1988; Oliver, 2003; Wilkinson, 2004; Sin, 2005)
Out of this project location, it has been depicted that the land can sustain fish when construction of fish pond is done in a recommendable manner. From the analysis of the market structure, fish has become daily food consumption. Therefore I constructed a big fish ponds to facilitate fish consumption within the village and nearest market. This section will therefore address the impact of fish ponds on operating marketing and management personnel and reveal research project findings on the health, work performance, age and gender and the impact on social and family relations, as availed in the project.
Due to the subjective nature of the research questions, the research philosophy of Social Constructionism will be best suited because according to this philosophy, reality is socially constructed and is determined by “people who attach meanings to it”, rather than through objective factors. In this the approach is to use interviews and observation (Baker, 2003; Easterby-Smith et al, 2008; Eisner, 1991; Miller and Brewer, 2003). Positivism on the other hand emphasises that scientific knowledge about society can be created just like the physical sciences; generalised through repeated observations and the output of this knowledge can be used to provide a basis for social policy-making (Donaldson, 2003). However, in the case of this research project, the subjective contexts are more important, and information can be sensitive, as to how organisations think of ethical practices in e-commerce from the perspective of trust. The answers to such questions cannot be objective and hence positivism does not suit this research.
According to Yin (1994), many data collections methods can be applied in this regard, including in-depth interviews, documents, observation, physical artefacts, archival records and semi-structured interviews and no exact boundaries can be drawn into data collection methods. Given the scope of the study, only semi-structured interviews are intended to be used. According to Baker (2003), semi-structured interviews allow collection of large data about various different factors quickly and allow follow-ups for generating deep insights. Hence after designing the interview schedule based on measurement criteria, based agriculture multinationals will be contacted using snowball sampling and managers in these firms will be interviewed. Additionally, the study will use the observation method while visiting these firms as to how ethical practices are being followed. Thirdly, document analysis of these firms will be used to validate and mediate the results from interviews and observation. A good researcher should know how to create a good mix of these ‘three legs’ in the right proportion. This triangulation brought about by combining these three methods also reduces ‘bias’ caused by one single method and contributes to better research validity. Also the strength of qualitative research is in the ‘concurrent use of multiple tools’ (Hall and Rist, 1999). Hence a good analysis of these three methods has been found useful in achieving the research objectives.
The interview data from the companies will be transcribed and recorded into software such as Envivo. It will be analysed by identifying similar patterns and differences and associating them with the measurement criteria. The data will be structured through nodes (tree nodes, free nodes etc.) within Envivo to establish a deep understanding of the area. The results from observation and document analysis will be used to support the analysis. The findings and results will then be tabulated and discussed in relation to previous research and conclusions will be drawn, followed by limitations and challenges faced in the study.
The study will ensure that ethical practices such as that of informed consent, no-harm, privacy, anonymity and responsible dissemination of data (Kimmel, 1988; Oliver, 2003; Wilkinson, 2004; Sin, 2005) are applied. Informed consent will be gained by taking due permissions from gatekeepers of organisations such as key managers before interviewing any villager. The interviews will be kept anonymous and private, name identifiers will be removed so that the study is unbiased and also does not harm the participant in the study in any possible way. Collected data will be kept confidential and will be shared only with the supervisor and not with competing organisations, which may happen to ask about other firms in which interviews were conducted. Participants will be duly informed about the academic nature of the study and how data and results of the will be disseminated.
Research Project Plan
The activity 1 involves acceptance of the proposal, followed by discussion of the various research methods, access to organisations, and decision on practical factors such as place, budget etc. Activities 2 and 3 involve conducting a detailed literature review after a discussion on keywords, library catalogue, bibliographic databases, articles, journals, research papers etc. After this, a research design will be developed to from the interview schedule and identify measurement criteria. The research design will be checked for ethical aspects and then interviews will be carried out. Activity 4 involves getting access to land and conducting interviews. As responses are gathered, they will be input into Envivo for analysis. In the latter two weeks of the month, data analysis (activity 5) will be carried out using Envivo. Activity 6 involves comparing the results with the literature and discussing the results with the supervisor. Activities 7, 8 and 9 are concerned with writing the dissertation and review by the supervisor. The overall set of activities will be completed in the last month.
Fish pond project has been positively correlated with constrained health. This has mainly been attributed to the psychological and physiological body functioning and the associated work conditions intolerance which is dependent on the individual. Problems include headaches, persistent fatigue, gastrointestinal problems (diarrhea, constipation, upset stomach, and appetite loss), muscular aches and restlessness, and slowed reaction time. It has been reported that fish pond personnel are usually at higher rates of encountering cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Other health complications that have been associated with fatigue and work stress will include; high blood pressure, epilepsy, diabetes, heart problems, intestinal disorders, insomnia, and depression (McKnight and Chervany, 2001).
The need for the body to constantly adjust to the changing stress patterns as dictated by adjust to poor work conditions has been demonstrated to arise from a multiple of factors. Furthermore, increasing levels of stress may result to frustration, irritability and aggression. Other effects may include restlessness, nervousness and agitation which can result to impulsivity, carelessness and impatience. Extended stress levels that may significantly impair body functioning, disease resistance, depression or even death.
The nature of the operating theatre personnel work has been documented as stressful and which may affect their physical and emotional wellbeing. They also experience chronic non-traumatic stress arising from the demands of their work such as pressures from their superiors, nurses, the media, and the general public that well exacerbates the stress levels. These stress levels are seen to be raised a notch higher as they are work long hours, insufficient technical facilities, absence of appreciation, long and short breaks or work in shifts. The strain on the body at times becomes too much to bear resulting to general physical malaise and emotional disturbance. A lot of personnel have subsequently been seen to result to the use of sedative-hypnotic drugs, alcohol and even hard drugs. These behaviours typically impair their general health and wellbeing. In extreme cases, some have resulted to committing suicides.
From a theoretical perspective, McKnight and Chervany (2001) have suggested that ethical issues in agricultural land affect the trust of consumers in the business and this trust can be: (1) Dispositional – that is a general trust in humanity; (2) Institutional – that is trust in the situation or structures such as the world wide web itself; or (3) Interpersonal – that is the direct specific person that one trusts, such as the E-vendor. Unethical practices in agriculture can affect all three categories of trust, especially in an international context.
From a dispositional perspective, trust in agriculture can be affected by fraudulent e-business firms, or by fraudulent sellers operating with trusted firms (Floridi and Sanders, 2001; Schoorman et al, 2007). For instance, Ebay focuses clearly on this type of trust by ensuring that the payment channel is secure and reliable. To do so, it even acquired PayPal, which was gaining widespread acceptance as a reliable payment channel. It has also partnered with Channel Advisor to get consulting advice about reliable payment operations in developing markets (Standifird, 2001). Ebay’s reputation as a reliable agricultural firm has however been jeopardised by the rise of internet frauds especially in the trade of high value firm products. Even currently, Ebay does not have any mechanism in identifying fraudulent sellers before items are listed on its website. Dispositional trust can also be affected by unethical use of consumer data for direct marketing purposes.
During an agricultural operation, consumer data such as credit card information and personal details are passed over to the firm, which can misuse this data. This is often called social engineering or phishing (Duff, 2005). In an agricultural firm with high technique, a firm sends emails or creates web pages that are similar to legitimate businesses. When victims click on links in these emails, they are requested to enter personal information, and sometimes even credit/debit card details and PIN numbers. Agricultural firm that uses the new technology receive text messages on the phone that causes users to go to websites that capture information of users. Vishing, another form of phishing uses Voice over IP, a new technology that allows voice calls to be made from the internet to landline phones. Such calls are difficult to track because they are based on unknown numbers dynamically assigned by the company providing VoIP services (Jaques, 2006). However, there is little research as to how these activities affect dispositional trust in e-commerce, especially in an international perspective.
Institutional trust is enhanced by forming and enforcing laws such as the Data Protection Act in the UK (DirectGov, 2005). Even though domestic UK firms adhere to these, their subsidiaries in developing countries face institutional trust issues such as different rules of law (North, 1990) which can affect agriculture operations. Ineffective or badly implemented agricultural laws, especially in developing countries or transition economies can affect transactional integrity and the credibility of payment channels (Oxley and Yeung, 2001). However, firms in developed countries such as UK can also face confusion due to the regionalism and ambiguity of such laws. For instance, privacy related laws implemented by the European Commission are only applicable for member countries, and agricultural activity by multinational firms in European countries that are currently not members of EU can use unethical practices, eventually affecting institutional trust. Also, the ambiguity of such laws in developed countries can lead to firms finding loopholes.
Interpersonal trust in agriculture deals with trust between two or more parties such as the buyer and seller. In ethical terms, this often deals with issues of benevolence, privacy of transactions, integrity and predictability (McKnight and Chervany, 2001). This can also be combined with institutional aspects such as the credibility of payment channels. Dubbeld (2010) suggests that “Third–party privacy or security seals, such as those issued by TRUSTe or VeriSign, appear to be even more uncommon than online privacy policies. UK firms often use an official third–party security seal. In both cases, the seal referred to Web sites’ safeguards for secure transmission of medical data on the (patient/physician) log–in Web page”. Firm specific privacy policies thus play a key role in ethical e-commerce activity. However, again there is less research on this from an international context.