Research work of students is one of the most important forms of educational process. It allows the student to start a complete scientific work, to find like-minded people, with whom it is possible to consult and share the fruits of their research. All university students carry out different types of research work and write essays.
HOW TO WRITE A PERFECT PAPER
These tips will help you create a top grade writing paper.
WORK WITH SOURCES
Writing a scientific work requires a clear idea of the level of development of the topic under study in science. That is why you need to get acquainted with the main literature concerning the chosen topic (monographs, articles). Searches for this literature will be used by systematic and alphabetical collections, as well as by various bibliographical references. It is expedient to note the data from sources on separate cards or in the notebook, mentioning all the facts about the publication (the surname and initials of the author, the name of the monograph, articles or collections of articles, abstracts, place, year of publication, title of the publishing house, number of pages). The results of the experiments can be presented in charts, tables, and formulas.
THE MAIN STAGES OF WORK ON THE TEXT
Traditionally, the structure of scientific work contains the following components: introduction, the body of the text, conclusions, list of used literature. There is also a list of conditional abbreviations, a list of sources used, and the application. It is advisable to submit the contents immediately after the title page of the page with the indication of pages. Note, it can be formatted as a simple or elaborate plan.
Creating a top grade writing paper involves the following steps:
- diagnostic (choice of topic, determination of the purpose and tasks of the study);
- prognostic (determination of the ways of solving the tasks, justification of the relevance and novelty of the research);
- organization (collecting information, compiling the list of literature, processing, and systematizing the material,
drawing up a plan, writing a work, formulating conclusions, editing the text, forecasting possible questions and answers to them, public presentation).
CHOOSE A PROPER TOPIC
The choice of theme is the initial stage of work. This is a critical phase because the topic predetermines all the further course of work. The subject of your work should neither be too broad nor too narrow.
There are several requirements for the topic of good papers:
- Relevance and novelty (the argumentation of the necessity of conducting research, the disclosure of the real need for the study of the topic, the relevance of the topic to the current state of a particular science);
- Scientific orientation (correctness of the use of terms, concepts, and formulations);
- The problem (the theme should have research-exploratory character);
- Accuracy (correspondence to the facts that objectively exist in science);
THE STRUCTURE OF A GOOD PAPER
The next step after selecting the topic is related to the development of the structure of work.
It is necessary to adhere to the general requirements, according to which the structure of work includes:
- cover sheet;
- list of contents;
- the enumeration of the symbols (if necessary);
- the main part;
- list of used literature;
- applications (if necessary).
HOW TO WRITE AN INTRODUCTION
In the introduction of a top grade writing paper, the choice of the topic of research, its relevance and novelty, the purpose and objectives of the research are formulated. The definition of relevance is nothing more than an indication of the degree of the development of a topic, the place of research among such works. In other words, it is necessary to show what has already been done in this area by others, and what should be done by the author of the work. The purpose of the paper is the main direction of the research activity, which must be achieved by the results of the work in the most general form. The research objectives specify the purpose, determine the main content of the work. Tasks transform into names of sections (subsections). In the formulation of tasks, the following verbs are commonly used: to define, to reveal, to create, to identify, to develop, to establish, to argue, etc. It is necessary to avoid the use of words such as studying, analyzing, reviewing, exploring, etc., as they convey the process of achieving the goal.
Typical mistakes in the formulation of tasks are as follows:
- the task is formulated wider than the goal;
- the problem is formulated almost the same as the goal;
- the tasks are set inconsistently;
- a large number of tasks.
THE BODY OF THE TEXT ESSENCE
As usual, the main part of the paper is divided into chapters, sections, and subdivisions in which an analytical review of the literature on the subject is made, an analysis of certain scientific phenomena in the aspect of the research problem. Typically, a student research work consists of two chapters: the first one involves, as a rule, theoretical material, and the second one is practical. If the research problem is divided into relatively independent parts, the number of chapters may be larger. In this case, the first one (general) includes theoretical material, and the following paragraphs are devoted to each problem and can include both theoretical and practical material. It is necessary to remember that each part of your work must be completed with brief conclusions.
HOW TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS
The most difficult thing is to formulate the conclusions of the study. This section summarizes the essence of the scientific results of the work, summarizes the findings in the form of some abstracts. At the same time, the number and content of the conclusion points must be correlated with the tasks and content of the work. Conclusions need to be formulated in a meaningful plan, which means not just the results of the study should be called but their essence too.
To clarify the logic of constructing the entire work, it is useful to implement the following method to compare the research tasks with the names of parts of work and with the conclusions. If the number and contents of tasks and conclusions are correlated with each other and correspond to the names of the sections (subsection), then the logical structure of the work is sustained.
LIST OF SOURCES AND APPLICATIONS
The author of the work is obliged to refer to the sources and materials that he or she uses in the research process. The list of sources used (books, monographs, articles from the magazine and newspapers, articles in collections of conference materials or scientific works, electronic addresses of sites, etc.) must be formed either in alphabetical order of the writers’ names or as the references appear in the text of the work. The “Applications” section includes additional material. It is formed in case of necessity of complete disclosure of the contents and results of research. The number of applications is determined by the author of the work.
This section may include:
- tables, illustrations of auxiliary character;
- copies of archival documents;
- photographs, charts, maps, questionnaires, etc.;
- recommendations on the practical use of the results obtained, etc.
Applications are placed after the main content, while the numbering of pages of work continues. If necessary, the applications can be issued as an independent part and have the form of a booklet, brochure, etc.